For those who do not know me, my name is Delina (Dee), and I am a rising senior at Providence College – double majoring in Global Studies and Public and Community Service Studies with a minor in Black Studies.
I have now been in Cape Town, South Africa, for a few days, and I have finally adjusted to the time change. Being back in my favorite place in the world has me extremely grateful to Providence College and the Feinstein Institute for Public Service for the various research grants I have received and for choosing me to be the trip leader of the Global Service Learning trip.
Through the Global Service Learning trip, I will be taking part in a course at the University of Cape Town called “Social Infrastructures,” which includes various site visits and focuses on what it really means to engage with the local community in an intentional way. I took this course last year, and it introduced me to some of the most resilient communities I have ever encountered. I will also be spending an extra two weeks in Cape Town (one being this week before the group arrives and one after the group leaves to go back to the States) conducting two research projects. The first is with my adviser, Dr. Nick Longo, and the second will be alongside Nazeer Ahmed Sonday, a farmer and political activist at Philippi Horticultural Area (PHA) – an agroecology site. I will be conducting interviews and focus groups to collect data in order to build a case for PHA to submit to the United Nations so that it can hopefully gain status as Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems Site (GIAHS).
My first few days here have been full of lots of reading, research, and taking some time to become acquainted with this area of the city (since last year, I stayed a bit closer to the university). But, as much as I love to adventure around to coffee shops and take in the fresh (45 degree, YES, IT’S COLD HERE) air, this first week has to be full of research. As I sit in my room reading articles and taking notes on Philippi Horticultural Area, outside my window sits Lions Head – one of my favorite mountains in South Africa. Hiking is my number one favorite past time and although the mountains (one of my favorite parts about Cape Town) are calling me, I must do research. Being able to research in my favorite place reminds me of what a privilege it is to be a student of Providence College and the opportunities that have been provided to me by this institution.
Becoming a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System site (GIAHS) is not easy, and it requires a lot of support from not only the members of PHA, but also the City of Cape Town itself. One of the major reasons PHA desires to gain this status GIAHS is to have an international arm of support against City developers. PHA is a very special place because a little over a quarter of its surface area is a seasonal wetland. Through my research, I have found that it has a great history and heritage in agriculture. In the 1650’s the Khoi and San nomadic tribes would let their animals graze over this land, and in the 1850’s the Philippi Germans came and began agriculture here. They used various heritage techniques, one being no-till farming. However, during the apartheid state in South Africa thousands who were not considered to be “white” were forcibly relocated to this area known as the Cape Flats. This area became and still remains a place full of informal and formal settlements leaving less and less land for farming and greater food insecurity in Cape Town.
The land that remains (a little over 3,000 hectare) is the last of the land over the aquifer. This is important because this is what makes PHA so great for farming. The aquifer replenishes itself and allows over 4,000 farmers in Philippi to produce about 80% of the vegetables to the City of Cape Town, which is just about 200,000 tons of food. This is why PHA is known as the “breadbasket” of Cape Town. However, over the past few years developers have been attempting to gain permission to create housing developments on the remaining land over the aquifer. This is severely detrimental for a couple of reasons. First, it would deplete the only remaining land over the aquifer, which would not leave any land for agriculture. If no land is left for agriculture, the City would have to import vegetables and the prices would severely increase. Second, it would deplete livelihoods. This would cause more than 4,000 farmers to lose their jobs and their source of income.
Because of all of this, over 25 local organizations have formed the PHA Food and Farming Campaign against the City developers. The spokesperson of the campaign, Nazeer Ahmed Sonday, is who I am working alongside in this research. Although the PHA Food and Farming Campaign just recently had a large victory over the developers this past February/March by winning a court case against development, their battle is far from over.
This is where my research comes in. The interviews and focus groups I conduct will lead to data and narratives to be analyzed so that PHA can apply to be a GIAHS and hopefully gain status and increased protection against developers.
The end of this week will be filled with perusing through the South Africa National Library for important documents, going to the Cultural Heritage Museum, meeting on UCT’s campus with other researchers who have done work in Philippi, and forming more interview documents. This first preliminary week is all about setting the groundwork to propel me into researching alongside the activists and farmers in Philippi – so it is hard not to be excited. I am also preparing to do an Instagram and Snapchat takeover through PC’s @friargram account, so look out for details on that.
The rest of the PC group arrives on Sunday and then class, “Social Infrastructures,” will begin. I am really looking forward to class beginning and for the group to arrive! We will have an extremely packed schedule once class begins! I am quite busy but enjoy balancing all of these diverse roles!
Until next time! Sending a lot of love all the way from South Africa!
Hey everybody! For those who do not know me, my name is Delina (Dee), and I am a rising senior at Providence College – double majoring in Global Studies and Public and Community Service Studies with a minor in Black Studies. I have now been in Cape Town, South Africa, for a few days, and […]MORE
My name is Cecelia Lahiff, and I am a humanities/art history major with a classics minor. I am from Goshen in Orange County New York.
This summer, under the guidance of my mentor Dr. Fred Drogula, I will be writing a research paper entitled “Wet Stars: Ancient Conceptions of Stars in the Golden Age Latin Poetry.” This project will include an in-depth look into the writings of Vergil (Virgil) and how he understood astronomy in his time.
Since this is not an already well-researched topic, I am excited to add some insight into the field of classics! Stay tuned for more updates as I try to be as eloquent as possible, while keeping my head in the stars!
Vale! (or farewell in Latin)
Hi! My name is Cecelia Lahiff, and I am a humanities/art history major with a classics minor. I am from Goshen in Orange County New York. This summer, under the guidance of my mentor Dr. Fred Drogula, I will be writing a research paper entitled “Wet Stars: Ancient Conceptions of Stars in the Golden Age […]MORE
Sometimes, opportunities arise from the most unlikely occasions. When I applied for this grant back in February, I was visiting Ireland with the Providence College Liberal Arts Honors Program. One morning at the hotel — surrounded by books on choral masterworks and 20th century musicians and typing away furiously on an iPad Word document that I would eventually polish up into my grant application — I was approached by one of the theology professors who had accompanied us on the trip and who was curious as to what I was working on during vacation.
I explained the premises of my project to her and what I hoped to accomplish if I was awarded a grant. Before breakfast was over, she had told me she knew of a Russian hymnographer with whom I could get in touch if I received the grant. Grant-in-hand a few weeks later, I began reaching out to Mr. Nicholas Kotar — a fantasy author, Russian translator, musician, and hymnographer with a seemingly bottomless wealth of knowledge on Russian chant history and characteristics. Earlier this month, I had the pleasure of meeting Mr. Kotar while in upstate New York and speaking with him about my research.
We met in Cooperstown, a quaint little village about five hours southwest of Rochester, where I was conducting more research at the Sibley Library at the Eastman School of Music at the University of Rochester. Outside a local café and market, Mr. Kotar gave me a rundown of the history of Russian chant music — detailing for me when and how it developed. Unlike most other traditions, the Russian Orthodox liturgical practices stemmed solely from Russian folk music and the influences of the Byzantine church presence in the area. This is because the pagan religions, which dominated the area prior to Christianization, had no musical tradition of their own. This explains why some of the Russian chant music still sounds vaguely familiar to more Western ears — it is essentially Byzantine chant with a characteristically Russian spin on it.
Znamenny chant, the first truly Russian liturgical music, developed soon after and is strikingly similar to Stravinsky’s works. Its characteristic elements include melismas (long lines sung on one syllable of text) and thetas (added syllables), both of which elongate important words in the chant. This focus on words would remain central to the compositional style of Russian chant, which always emphasized a conveyance of the text over melodic beauty. As such, sonorities that were unacceptable in the Roman Catholic liturgical tradition were allowed in the Russian canon, including open fourths and fifths, parallel seconds, and closed voicing with frequent voice crossing. When polyphony was introduced into the chant repertoire, Znamenny chant developed into Strochnoe chant, which translates to “line” or “horizontal” singing. This is an extremely appropriate descriptor, since these pieces involve a middle voice singing the original Znamenny chant surrounded by two outer voices that ornament the melody line but have no clear cut relation to it — creating a three-part piece in which each voice is independent. Similar tendencies can be seen in Stravinsky, especially in the interactions between his vocal and instrumental lines, which often are remarkably independent of each other. The included image is one such example. While the vocal lines in rehearsal three are clearly informed by each other, the accompanying instrumental line is largely independent of the vocal movement and either part could be easily taken out of the texture without destroying the other.
Supplied with these, and several other characteristics of Russian chant, thanks to the knowledge of Mr. Kotar, I have begun to create a spreadsheet analysis of the pieces — going through each measure with a fine tooth comb to look for patterns and characteristics that will be helpful in pinpointing how and when Stravinsky’s writing is influenced by Russian Orthodox chant.
The information I’m gathering ranges from the seemingly obvious, like what instruments are used and when, to the less conspicuous harmonic structure over the course of an entire movement or even the entire piece. Ultimately, this type of analysis will allow for the evaluation of Stravinsky’s composition in a way that will highlight the abundant similarities between Russian liturgical chant and the works of Stravinsky.
Sometimes, opportunities arise from the most unlikely occasions. When I applied for this grant back in February, I was visiting Ireland with the Providence College Liberal Arts Honors Program. One morning at the hotel — surrounded by books on choral masterworks and 20th century musicians and typing away furiously on an iPad Word document that […]MORE
My name is Meaghan Creamer, and I am going into my senior year at PC as an Elementary/Special Education major. In the fall of 2015 I had the opportunity to study abroad in Florence, Italy, as part of the Elementary Special Education Diversity in Education program. Once a week, for an hour, I taught Italian students in elementary school how to speak English. I learned how to instruct in a way that is straightforward with high energy. It did not matter that we spoke different languages, the students were excited about me being there, and I couldn’t wait to teach them.
While I was teaching, I found that my intercultural competence was growing, and I was becoming a cultured global citizen. That being said, I loved the program and wanted to look into it on a deeper level. This is where my research for the summer comes in. Dr. Hauerwas and Dr. Skawinski have been working on a research project titled “Culture, Language and Teaching: The Longitudinal Impact of an International Teaching Practicum,” and I asked if I could help out in any way. Dr. Hauerwas and I worked together and decided I should look into the reciprocal benefits that the program has for the Italian children and their teachers. I will be focusing my analysis on the impact of the American university student on the children’s English language skill and global understanding.
How do I do this? Well, while we were in Florence the children filled out a research questionnaire for Dr. Hauerwas that asked 10 questions about their experience having us as teachers. Of course, they responded in Italian, so the first step was having someone translate them to English. Since that step is completed, I now am taking their answers and using a qualitative research coding system called Hyper Research in order to find patterns within their responses. We take every sentence the students wrote and code it into a codebook based on what is said. For example, a sentence such as “They taught me how to pronounce my words better” would go under the code “pronunciation.” This week, we are establishing the reliability of our coding process. At the end, we will be able to see different patterns and then put meaning to those patterns. There are just about 1,500 sentences that need to be coded, so we are busy!
Throughout this process I also am keeping in mind the paper that will be written at the end of the summer to summarize the results! In order to inform myself, I am reading literature that has to do with service-learning programs, abroad programs, and student learning in the classroom. I can’t wait to see the results! I will keep you posted on how it goes!
Hello Readers! My name is Meaghan Creamer, and I am going into my senior year at PC as an Elementary/Special Education major. In the fall of 2015 I had the opportunity to study abroad in Florence, Italy, as part of the Elementary Special Education Diversity in Education program. Once a week, for an hour, I […]MORE
Two works comprising eight movements, 92 pages, and 785 measures. These compositions, Mass and Symphony of Psalms, are at the heart of what I’ve been working on for the past few weeks. Having received my scores from London, I made a preliminary sketch of the pieces, noting their overarching construction, marking cadences, and identifying the general forms used. I also studied the texts used in the works — where they come from, their purpose, and how often they have been set in the past. Basic sketches like this allow me to get a feel for the piece without getting too bogged down in chord function or voice leading — acting as an aural-big-picture, if you will.
With a basic understanding of the pieces in mind, I traveled to the Irving S. Gilmore Music Library at Yale University, where I began to study the characteristics of early Russian polyphony and liturgical chant. This can be a difficult area of study because the neumatic system of notation used in the earliest transcriptions of Russian chant are still largely enigmatic to scholars. But fortunately, in 1772 the Holy Synod published a book of liturgical chants used by the Russian Orthodox Church in a modernized notational system, which gives us a glimpse of what the original chant notation may have indicated.
While at Yale, I studied some chant excerpts and listened to several recordings of monastery choirs performing liturgical chant. Much like Stravinsky, who was once quoted as having claimed to free music from the bar line, Russian liturgical chants are sung very freely — allowing the words and their meaning to take prominence over any sense of strong or weak beats. This same feeling is established in Stravinsky’s works, notably in the Gloria of Mass, where Stravinsky constantly changes the meter in which he is composing, while simultaneously utilizing sixteenth note triplets and quintuplets that break down the sense of rhythmic stability we generally associate with music.
Though by its nature this project is much more grounded in music theory than in musicology, I have also spent some time at Providence College’s own Phillips Memorial Library — studying Stravinsky himself and learning what he had to say about the composition of his Catholic liturgical works. Though he never specifically said he was looking back to Russian Liturgical Chant, Stravinsky did admit that he was composing these works with the intent of looking back into the past. We can also be certain that he did have exposure to early polyphonic chant, since he was not only a member of the Russian Orthodox Church himself, but also a student of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, who was instrumental in the resurgence of traditional Russian chant following a period of expansive Western influence. Additionally, Stravinsky was exposed to several examples of Georgian chant, which he studied and transcribed and which continued to fascinate him throughout his life.
Later this week, I will be continuing to delve into my research, traveling to Rochester, New York to visit the music library at the Eastman School of Music and to speak with a Russian hymnographer in Cooperstown, New York. I look forward to being able to flesh out my understanding of Russian chant and to use that knowledge to continue discovering the influence this tradition had on Stravinsky’s compositions.
Two works comprising eight movements, 92 pages, and 785 measures. These compositions, Mass and Symphony of Psalms, are at the heart of what I’ve been working on for the past few weeks. Having received my scores from London, I made a preliminary sketch of the pieces, noting their overarching construction, marking cadences, and identifying the […]MORE