Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War – Nicholas Lemann
Redemption – “the act of making something better or more acceptable”
The dictionary definition of redemption seems pretty self-explanatory, but how about redemption in relation to the Civil War? A book I read recently dealt with this concept in terms of what happened once the war “ended.” Yes, the quotes around “ended” are deliberate because, after reading this book, I questioned whether or not the war ended in 1865 with Lee’s surrender to Grant in the Appomattox courthouse. After reading this book, it would seem that the war continued on — but in a different and crueler way.
This cruelty can be seen in Colfax, Louisiana, which was the site of what became known as the Colfax Riot. I bet when you first read the name nothing came to mind – which happened to me. It holds significance that cannot be overlooked or forgotten, but most people have no idea what happened. As the picture included shows, the riot is commemorated by a sign that reads, “On this site occurred the Colfax Riot in which three white men and 150 negroes were slain. This event on April 13, 1873 marked the end of carpetbag misrule in the South.”
Yikes. The simplicity with which this even is remembered is kind of shocking — even more so once the whole situation is known. On Easter Sunday 1873, eight years after the “end” of the Civil War, a riot broke out in which politics was the main culprit again. Voting was the actual issue, but underneath lay the tensions that caused it all. After 1865, with the “end” of the war and the ratification of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, slavery was abolished and voting rights were given to all men. On the surface, this seemed to solve the problem, but it did not. The inherent racism that was carried out by many White Americans continued, and they simply found other ways to oppress Black men and women.
The Colfax Riot was a prime example of this because it showed the corruption that ensued even after the creation of those amendments. The election for governor of Louisiana was contentious because White, Southern Democrats created shadow governments behind those that were legally in place and created an institution called the White League. Members of this group intimidated and attacked Republicans in the South, as well as Black citizens. The tensions came to a head with the election of governor. Requests were sent to Washington when it became obvious that the White League was going to show no mercy and eventually almost all Blacks that were part of the riot were murdered.
President Grant was contacted, but he did not send troops, and that worried Black residents of the Southern states. The political Civil War had ended, but the social Civil War was still raging on in the South. But, in a way, that was less overt. Many White southerners used intimidation, as seen in Colfax, and eventually loopholes that allowed them to continue to suppress members of the Black population — without technically breaking the law. Redemption then becomes another battle for Black residents, and one that is necessary for their safety in the free country they called home. They did not feel like redemption was being worked toward, and nothing was getting better for them. If anything, their lives were getting worse.
Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War – Nicholas Lemann Redemption – “the act of making something better or... MORE
- In February 1861, President-elect Abraham Lincoln traveled from Springfield to Washington, visiting his supporters and finding his voice on his way to taking the Oath of Office on March 4.
- In February 2016, I traveled around campus, learned a few things and concluded the month with Spring Break.
In my last post I gave you a super brief summary of the Civil War and presented the case that Lincoln faced many problems leading up to his presidency — and even during the war. In this post, I want to talk about some of those.
For the most part, Lincoln’s trip to Washington D.C. from Illinois was uneventful. He stopped in 27 cities and was greeted by crowds of supporters who he spoke to about his plan-of-action while in office. However, one city in particular posed a slight problem for him — Baltimore. You may have heard about the Baltimore Plot, or you may not have. It was a supposed plot to assassinate Lincoln upon his arrival at the train station. His security caught wind of the plan and insisted that he bypass Baltimore — so he proceeded directly from Pennsylvania to Washington. Lincoln did not want to do this, but despite his many reservations about skipping the city, his convoy continued straight onto Washington.
Many people did not actually like this move, and Lincoln was ridiculed because of it. Some newspapers created caricatures of him as a coward, like the picture included, and they said that he was weak and would not be able run the country to the standards the people would have wanted. The people of the Union began to question their decision and his ability to lead them.
Even after the Baltimore Plot was cleared up, Lincoln still faced issues and problems with the people around him. He had cabinet members who made decisions behind his back, generals who did not take action against the Confederate troops, and a nation that was divided and unable to stand together as one. You would think that people would be more inclined to listen to their Commander-in-Chief, but with the tensions surrounding Lincoln’s presidency, it is more understandable why people did not listen. Now, I’m not saying this is a valid reason for not listening to your boss, and his words and actions should not be undermined at any point, but this is the root of all the problems. Secretary of War Cameron essentially went behind Lincoln’s back and tried to create actions that directly countered his ideas and weakened Lincoln’s relationship with his other cabinet members. General McClellan was cocky, hotheaded, and timid — he continually set up attacks on Confederate troops and then failed to attack further and defeat them when he could.
This was Lincoln’s biggest problem area and the one with which he struggled the most. General McClellan was a West Point graduate and extremely knowledgeable of war tactics — much more than me, so I’m going to do my best to explain what was going on. During the war, more specifically the Peninsula Campaign in which the Union forces attempted to take Richmond, McClellan failed to keep the trust of Lincoln. Trust was necessary to win the war, and this is what I have taken away from this reading and learning experience. The war was a complicated political situation that cannot be summed up by one thing. However, trust was something that every participant needed to have. Lincoln’s actions in removing McClellan from his position and appointing General Grant taught me that sometimes you have to make a decision that is not always the easiest or most popular. I know this sounds trivial or makes it seem that I’m diminishing the decisions Lincoln had to make throughout his presidency and the war, but it is true. There are times when I have to trust my own judgment and make an unpopular decision, not at all like the ones Lincoln had to make. His resiliency and ability to stand by what he believed shows me that even through the darkest times, it is still possible to come out on the other side and “win.”
Opening fact: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/lincolns-whistle-
In February 1861, President-elect Abraham Lincoln traveled from Springfield to Washington, visiting his supporters and finding his voice on his... MORE
February 23, 1861
President-elect Lincoln arrives in Washington, D.C., after a tumultuous journey from Illinois, to await his inauguration on March 4, amid continued threats of succession from southern states.
February 23, 2016
I sit at my desk, after a tumultuous journey from the dining hall, to write about Lincoln’s journey, amid internal debates about going to bed instead of doing my homework.
Hi Everyone! My name is Abby Norberg and I am a history major and a senior here at PC — not quite sure if I want to put an exclamation point at the end of that sentence, so I’m not going to. As you probably can tell from the fun facts at the beginning, I’m studying the Civil War with Dr. Patrick Breen! Even though there isn’t one thing about the Civil War that has stuck out to me, hopefully over the course of my studying with Dr. Breen and the readings I’ll be doing this semester, I’ll be able to refine that a little bit more.
Since this is a topic that is pretty well-known by most Americans, I hope to keep this blog light and enjoyable. My goal is to provide you with a different way of looking at the Civil War and hopefully give you a different perspective on this crucial piece of our nation’s history.
With that being said, the Civil War in 30 seconds:
By June of 1861, 11 states had seceded from the Union, spurred by the election of President Lincoln, and created a confederacy led by Jefferson Davis. Lincoln believed succession was unconstitutional, so he told them to come back. They said no, and a war was fought. Neither side believed it would last long, but four years later, at the Appomattox courthouse, Lee surrendered to Grant and the war finally ended. Then began the process of reunion.
Obviously, 30 seconds does not do either side justice. The Civil War was much more complicated than that, and to boil it down to those few sentences can’t summarize the horrors these young men faced and the struggles of both sides on the home fronts. To write about every aspect of the Civil War in one post would be counterproductive since so many others have already done that – and much more eloquently than I could ever hope to do.
One such book is James M. McPherson’s Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, which was published in 1988 as part of The Oxford History of the United States. In 862 pages McPherson is able to set up the war, analyze the war, and tell the story of this pivotal period of our history. However, the book does not begin where you might think to start. He does not start with the firing on Fort Sumter or the First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas). Instead, he begins with the Mexican American War. What? Yeah, the beginning of the Civil War dates back to 1846 not 1860. Yes, Lincoln’s election created so much tension that those 11 states seceded, but why?
Land. That is where the Mexican American War comes into play. With the acquisition of so much new land, the states needed to figure out what to do with it – would it be slave territory or free? Obviously the South wanted to make it slave so that they would have a majority in Congress, but the North also wanted a majority. Ultimately, the question of the expansion of slavery comes into play. Lincoln was against that, and the North liked that he was. He was not opposed to the institution of slavery, but he was against its expansion and believed that if it were to continue, it would need to stay where it was. One thing led to another, and eventually those 11 states created their own confederacy and elected Jefferson Davis. This leads us, finally, into Lincoln’s journey to Washington and the difficult decisions he faced during the war — like having to deal with generals who don’t listen to you, abolitionists trying to end the war, and the continued struggle of finding men to fight. These cannot, in any way, be discussed in this post, because I feel it is already too long and I’ve lost your attention. Until next time, when we will discuss Lincoln’s struggles and the more intricate details of the war!
February 23, 1861 President-elect Lincoln arrives in Washington, D.C., after a tumultuous journey from Illinois, to await his inauguration on... MORE
The goal of my research project was to learn more about the life of modern American poet, Wallace Stevens, and to decide whether or not his conversion to Roman Catholicism on his deathbed should be considered authentic.
In addition, I hoped to determine if there are any signs of a conversion could be seen in Stevens’ poetry. I read biographies of Stevens, as well as interviews, criticisms, and his own poetic collections for my preliminary research. Then, I wrote on a weekly basis about my thoughts and discoveries. My Honors Independent Research Project turned out to be 43 pages or 16,000 words—just about thesis length (but who’s counting?). I focused on four of his poems—Anecdote of Men by the Thousands, Sunday Morning, Notes Toward a Supreme Fiction, and Of Mere Being—as well as accounts about his final days. I believe that I wrote a convincing paper about why Wallace Stevens’ conversion to Catholicism at the end of his life should be viewed as genuine, and also about the indicators of his affinity for religion that I noted throughout his poetic career.
I plan on continuing to research this project. I felt crunched for time at the end of the semester, and I wish that I could have devoted more time to polishing this paper. But, I still have more reading and thinking to do, and I also plan to write more about this topic. It is close to my heart, and I want to develop my argument to the best of my ability.
Although I found this assignment to be very challenging at times, in hindsight, this is one of my favorite academic experiences as a student at Providence College. I am proud of myself for finishing this project, and I am satisfied with the end result. I couldn’t have asked for a better advisor than Dr. Hogan. He was knowledgeable, flexible, and he always provided me with the encouragement that I needed. I could not have turned out a finished product of this caliber without him. I found it very helpful to meet with him on a weekly basis and to bounce my ideas off of him because they often turned into even better thoughts. This honors independent research project/thesis helped me to grow as a person and in my faith. I found personal inspiration in the life-story and the poetry of Wallace Stevens, and I believe that to complete an essay of this length and depth allowed me to become more organized, self-disciplined, and efficient. I would absolutely recommend conducting research to other students who consider themselves to be up to the task.
The goal of my research project was to learn more about the life of modern American poet, Wallace Stevens, and... MORE
Hi everyone – I have been meeting with my thesis advisor, Dr. Bill Hogan, on a weekly basis to discuss my work and to gauge my progress on this project. He has been a huge help throughout the process. I have found it extremely beneficial to bounce my ideas off of him, to engage with his own theories about Wallace Stevens’ poetry, and to have a second set of eyes on my writing. Dr. Hogan is also interested in Stevens, but he is more focused on the poet’s treatment of nature, so it has been fruitful for me to join my own analysis with his fresh perspective in our collaborative discussions.
Since my last blog post, I have narrowed the scope of my independent research project slightly. The crux of my thesis paper will involve my engagement with (and analysis of) three major poems that trace the entirety of Wallace Stevens’ literary career. The first, “Sunday Morning,” is from Stevens’ earliest collection, Harmonium, and it is one of his most well-known works. “Sunday Morning” is concerned with finding meaning and beauty in a world devoid of religion. In my paper, I will argue that Stevens’ attempt to find a replacement for institutionalized belief is a fundamental religious impulse and a paradoxical movement toward God. The second major work that I will be grappling with is a mid-career moment of Stevens, which is titled “Notes toward a Supreme Fiction.” Many critics consider this to be Stevens’ opus–his “Wasteland” poem per se.
In this vastly difficult literary masterpiece, the poet simultaneously uses images and abstractions to establish his views on reality, the imagination, perception, and the power of poetry. Although there are religious topics to be explored in “Notes,” it is mostly relevant to my project because in it, Stevens tries to discover a supreme fiction that is capable of replacing religion. And while Stevens never arrived at a unifying truth at the center of reality in his poetry, he did find God at the end of his life, and I believe that the poet’s striving toward real knowledge in “Notes” can be seen as a precursor to his Catholic conversion. The last poem that I plan to analyze in-depth is the one of the last poems that Wallace Stevens ever wrote–“Of Mere Being”. In true Stevensian fashion, the poet still uses vivid images and rare abstractions to convey his perception of reality even this late in his life. However, I will argue that “Of Mere Being” is one of Stevens’ most explicitly religious poems. The language and the images that the poet employs suggest a readiness to accept God’s grace and to be welcomed into the fold. Of course, I will be using other poems from Harmonium, Transport to Summer, The Rock, and Late Poems as ancillary ammo for my argument. But, as of right now, the three aforementioned poems will form the basis of my thesis project.
I now know that my thesis will be focused on Wallace Stevens’ sacramental vision of the world as seen in his poetry. I will analyze Stevens’ poetry in the context of the Catholic sacraments and I will explain how the poet’s goal is analogous to that which takes place in a sacramental rite. Just like a Catholic priest uses words to turn material objects into divine vessels, so too did Wallace Stevens try to uncover a supreme fiction in the world through his poetic language.
I plan on visiting Stevens’ Hartford home in late April so that I can take his walk to work on a sunny day. I think that by taking a day late in the semester to explore Stevens’ city and to see his favorite natural conservancy (Elizabeth Park), it will allow me to appreciate all of the work that I have done so far and it will help me to conclude my independent research project. I plan to enjoy this day with my girlfriend and my mom, which will make the experience even more special.
Hi everyone – I have been meeting with my thesis advisor, Dr. Bill Hogan, on a weekly basis to discuss... MORE